Results of the sponge equilibrium question

Butwell's Demon

There is a new demon in town.My demon isn't concerned with differential heat reservoirs. He doesn't separate fast molecules from slow ones.

Butwell's Demon converts molecular and atomic kinetic energy to another form of energy. For example, he converts it to gravitational potential energy or to electrostatic potential energy. He can convert it to chemical energy as well. My demon is an single-heat-source energy converter.

So, lets look at the flow chart of energy for the sponge motor. First, we use the ionic potential energy stored in the sponge water system. We let the capillary action turn this ionic potential energy into gravitational potential energy. Next, we use the gravitational potential energy and store it. Finally, we use Butwell's Demon to convert molecular kinetic energy into ionic bond potential energy. As the water evaporates from the sponge, it is using single-source-heat energy.

Why should water evaporate from the sponge at 100% humidity

By the way, the rules of entropy point to this but keep in mind entropy is a man-made idea. It is a very handy concept. Just like the man-made concept of energy. Energy doesn't exist. It is simply an accounting system. I am pointing this out, because although the concept of entropy can be a useful tool, entropy doesn't cause anything. The causes are the force of gravity combined with differing partial gas pressures. So while the evaporation rate is almost (gravity is slightly different at each pool) the same from each pool, the return rate of water molecules is lower in the higher pool.

Why shouldn't we be able to harvest single temperature heat energy? Remember, the father of thermodynamics was Sadi Carnot who wrote Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire, in 1824, which was concerned with the efficiency of steam engines. Heat was thought to be carried by a substance called caloric. Scientists, at the time, did not believe in the atomic theory. Thermodynamics was further developed in the 1800's. The final result was the the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics. An empirical Law. It made sense back then. It doesn't make sense anymore. It is wrong. We can harvest the kinetic energy of molecules and atoms from a single heat source.

I think that once you start playing with the ideas on this website. You will agree that it is not at all unreasonable to expect to extract energy from a single temperature heat source. Now, that is not to say that entropy doesn't occur in nature. Of course it does. It's just that we can reverse it. Let's review the basics.

The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics

The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that "in all energy exchanges, if no energy enters or leaves the system, the potential energy of the state will always be less than that of the initial state." This is also commonly referred to as entropy. Entropy is a measure of the degree of randomness or disorder of systems.

We know that if we have two differential heat sources, one hot and one cold, we can do work. The simplest example of this is the bi-metallic strip. A bimetallic strip is used to convert a temperature change into mechanical displacement. The strip consists of two strips of different metals which expand at different rates as they are heated, usually steel and copper, or in some cases steel and brass. With our to two heat resevoirs we can alternately heat and cool our bi-metalic strip and get forceful movement and do work. With two heat resevoirs of different temperatures, we can do work. Can we do work if we have only a single temperature heat resevoir?

One corollary of the to the second law of thermodynamics is known as the Kelvin-Planck statement of the second law.

It is impossible for any device that operates on a cycle to receive heat from a single reservoir and produce a net amount of work.

It was thought that you could not harvest energy from a single temperatue heat resevoir. James Maxwell envisoned an imaginary being that could separate molecules depending on their velocities. This creature is called Maxwell's Demon. Picture two boxes, filled with air, sitting side by side. Their is a tiny common door between these boxes. Maxwell's creeature sits by the door with the intention of separation the fast hot molecules from the cold and slow air molecules. When a fast hot molecule is in the cold box and aimed at his door, he opens and shuts the door to trap it on the hot side. Likewise, he lets the cold slow molecule out of the hot box into the cold. He reverses entropy and as long as he access to heat, he has an endless supply of energy.

If the logic of the two-sponge problem is correct, we have disproved the Kelvin-Planck statement.

Entropy, with respect to MKE heat, can be reversed. We didn't use Maxwell's Demon, we used Butwell's Demon. We can harvest the kinetic energy of individual atoms and molecules. The sponge motor works in an isothermic, isolated system. We have reversed entropy and made a perpetual motion machine.